The Linear Effect-Oriented Approach

Module 3: Little Box of Nuance (LBON)

The Little Box of Nuance is made by dr. Rutger de Graaf and previous students in this MOOC for those of you who would like to read more on certain topics discussed in this course. The readings are not required for the course, but we recommend having a look at it. A three minute video only gives a limited time to go in depth into a subject, so if you want to know more about something discussed by the lecturer, have a look at the suggested readings.

These readings are not required to pass the course and are listed here in case you are interested in additional resources and want to learn more.


  1. In clip 3.4 we discussed Paul Lazarsfeld and Herta Herzog. They suggested a more nuanced picture of the War of the Worlds examplr. Another important study into this incident is The invasion of Mars by Cantrill and Cantrill (see: Further Readings).

Further Readings


Description: Framing; An article on the conceptualization of framing.

  • McCombs, M.E. & Shaw, D.L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176-187.

Description: Agenda-Setting; An article on the workings of Agenda-Setting.


–Chapter 19: Agenda-Setting, Framing and Propaganda

–Chapter 7: Commission on freedom of the press



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